When the outer hard tissues of the tooth are cracked, chewing can cause the crack to open and close, and the pulp can become irritated. When biting pressure is released, the crack can close quickly, resulting in a momentary, sharp pain. Irritation of the dental pulp can be repeated many times by chewing. Eventually, the pulp will become damaged to the point that it can no longer heal itself. The tooth will not only hurt when chewing but may also become sensitive to temperature extremes. In time, a cracked tooth may begin to hurt all by itself. Cracks can eventually lead to infection of the pulp tissue, which can spread to the bone and gum tissue surrounding the tooth.
What are the different types of cracks?
There are many different types of cracked teeth. The treatment and outcome for your tooth depend on the type, location, and severity of the crack.
Craze lines are tiny cracks that affect only the outer enamel. These cracks are extremely common in adult teeth. Craze lines are very shallow, cause no pain, and are of no concern beyond appearance.
This crack extends from the chewing surface of the tooth vertically towards the root. Sometimes the crack may extend below the gum line, and in severe instances, into the root. A cracked tooth is not completely separated into two distinct segments. Because of the position of the crack, damage to the pulp is common. Root canal treatment is frequently needed to treat the injured pulp. Your dentist will then restore your tooth with a full crown to contain and prevent the crack from getting any worse.
Early diagnosis is important. Even with high magnification and special lighting, it is sometimes difficult to determine the extent of a crack. A cracked tooth that is not treated will progressively worsen, eventually resulting in the loss of the tooth. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in saving these teeth.